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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    The United Kingdom is  situated  in  the  north-west  coast  of  Europe
between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and the North Sea  on
the east. The U.K.  includes  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland.  Great
Britain, the largest  island  in  Europe,  contains  England,  Scotland  and
Wales. The U.K. has an area of 94,249  square  miles.  The  capital  of  the
country is London. English is the official language. The population  of  the
U.K. is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in  towns  and
cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns.  Over
46 million people live in England. Over 3 million  in Wales. A little  over
5 million  in Scotland. About  1,5  million  -  in  the  Northern  Ireland.
Londons population is over 7 million people. The  British  nation  consists
of the English, Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. There  are  many  people  of
all colours and races in the U.K. the climate of Great Britain is  mild.  It
is not too hot in summers or too cold in winter. It often rains in  England.
Rain falls in the summer and in the winter, in autumn and  in  spring.  Snow
falls only in the north and west of country.  The  surface  of  England  and
Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts  of  the
country have beautiful villages. There are many  rivers  in  Great  Britain.
The main river is the Thames. Many ships and  barges  go  up  and  down  the
river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350  kilometres  long.  There  are
many  universities,  colleges,  libraries,  museums  and  theatres  in   the
country. The most universities are Cambridge University,  Oxford  University
and Glasgow University. The U.K. is a parliamentary  monarchy.  The  British
Parliament consists of two Houses: the House  of  Lords  and  the  House  of
Commons. The Prime  Minister  is  the  head  of  the  government.  The  main
political parties of Great Britain are the Labour Party, the  Liberal  Party
and the Conservative  Party.  The  Communist  Party  of  Great  Britain  was
founded in 1920. It is a party of the  working  people.  The  U.K.  has  few
mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The U.K.  is
one of the  worlds  most  industrialized  countries.  The  main  industrial
centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of  the
country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester,  Glasgow,  Belfast  and
Dublin. Agriculture takes an important sector economy of  the  country.  The
British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetable and oats.
                             Sports in our life
    Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and  old
people. Many people do morning exercises,  jog  in  the  morning  and  train
themselves  in  clubs  in  different  sections  and  take  part   in   sport
competitions. Other people like sports too, but they only watch sport  games
and listen to the sport news. They prefer reading interesting stories  about
sportsmen. But they  dont  go  in  for  sports.  Physical  training  is  an
important subject. Students of our college have  physical  training  lessons
twice a week. They play volleyball and basketball at the lessons.  There  is
a sportsground near our college and students go in for  spots  in  the  open
air. A lot of different competitions  are  held  at  the  college,  a  great
number of students take part in them. Sport helps people  to  keep  in  good
health. 2002 is the year of health in our  country.  Nowadays  most  of  the
teenagers smoke, dink alcohol, and take drags. Im against  of  it.  On  the
contrary I advice them to give up smoking and cut down. If  you  go  in  for
sports, you have good health and dont catch cold. Everybody must take  care
of their health and do morning exercises regularly.  The  are  some  popular
kinds of sports in our country: football, volley-ball,  hockey,  gymnastics,
skiing, skating and boxing. Everybody may  choose  the  sport  for  himself.
There are summer and winter sports. My favourite sport is swimming. I go  to
the swimming-pool twice a week.  Everybody  must  remember  that  the  first
wealth is health.
                          I want to be a programmer
    I want to become a computer programmer. It is  interesting  and  useful
profession. Im interested in computers. It  is  a  whole  new  world.  Many
people continue careers or there parents but it is not the case with  me  my
mother is a teacher and my father is a  doctor.  But  I  dont  want  to  be
neither a teacher nor a doctor. My favourite subjects in  school  are  math,
physics and of course computer science. Im not interested in such  subjects
as geography, biology or chemistry. My hobby is computer games and  computer
programming. I have computer at home and I can spend hours  working  at  it.
It is much easier  to  do  things  on  computer,  for  example  to  write  a
composition. You can change the text, as many times  as  you  want  and  you
dont need to rewrite everything if you changed something. I think that  the
profession of programmer can give  many  opportunities.  Computers  are  the
most rapidly changing sphere of modern technology. We are living in the  age
of information. And I think that the future is just filled  with  computers.
Today, in England or in USA people can work,  go  shopping  or  even  go  on
dates sitting at their computers. In our country, computers have  been  used
just for a short time. So after  I  finish  college  I  want  to  enter  the
university and study computer science. I know that  knowledge  is  power.  I
want to be high classified and educated person.
    Kazakhstan  is  independent  Republic.  Kazakhstan   is   ancient   and
hospitable land, which occupies  a  large  part  of  Central  Asia.  On  the
eastern border of Kazakhstan lies China. To the  south  lies  its  fraternal
Republics  Kyrgyzia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, to the north and  to  the
west lies the Russia. Kazakhstan has 14 regions, 84  cities.  More  than  17
million people of over hundred  nationalities  ethnic  groups  live  in  the
republic. The head of Kazakhstan  is  a  president  his  name  is  Nursultan
Nazarbayev.  Almaty  is  a  former  capital  of  Kazakhstan.  In  1997,  the
president of sovereign Kazakhstan made a decision to  transfer  the  capital
from Almaty to Akmola. In 1998 the government  of  the  country  decided  to
change the name of the capital into Astana, what means capital  in  Kazakh
language.  In  Kazakhstan  people  speak  Russian   or   Kazakh   languages.
Kazakhstan has hundreds of nationalities thats why all people  speak  their
native language. There are many parties in Kazakhstan,  for  example:  Azat,
Otan, Alash, Azamat.  The  president  is  elected  every  seven  years.  The
parliament can divided in two parts. One of them  is  deputation  of  Senate
and the other is deputation of Mazhilis. The Kazakhstan is rich  in  mineral
resources. Coal, oil, timber and gas are the most  important  of  them.  Im
proud of my country.
    I like to travel. First of all, the numbers of our family usually  have
long walks in the country. Such walks are called hikes. If we  want  to  see
the countryside, have to spend a part of our summer holidays  on  hikes.  It
is useful for our family. We take our bags, we dont  think  about  tickets,
we dont hurry up and we walk a lot. During such  hikes  we  see  a  lot  of
interesting places, sometimes we meet interesting people. I like  to  travel
by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many things  in  a  short
time. When we go by car, we dont take tickets, we put all  things  we  need
in a car. We dont carry them. It is comfortable to travel by train  and  by
plane. When I travel by plane, I dont spend a lot of time  going  from  one
place to another. I like to fly. If  I  travel  by  train  or  by  plane  my
friends see me off at the railway station or in the  airport.  Sometimes  we
go to the seaside for a few days. As usual the weather is  fine.  If  it  is
warm, we can swim. It is  pleasure  to  watch  white  ships.  I  think  that
travelling is very useful thing for us.
                             Seasons and weather
    There are four seasons in the year: winter, spring, summer and  autumn.
Each of them lasts three month. In  Kazakhstan  winter  is  usually  a  cold
season. It often snows. The most unpleasant thing about winter is  that  the
sun sets early and rises late  especially  in  December  and  January.  The
days are short, the sky is often grey, nature is slipping and  sometimes  it
gets rather boring. But at the and  of  March  the  weather  gets  gradually
milder. The sun shines more brightly.  The  days  become  longer.  The  snow
begins melting. Spring comes  and  nature  awakes  after  a  long  sleep  of
winter. All kinds of plants and flowers come out. The birds return from  the
South and  build  their  nests.  The  farmers  begin  the  sowing  campaign.
Everything around is full of life and joy. Spring  is  followed  by  summer.
The weather gets still warmer and some times it is  very  hot.  The  sky  is
blue and  cloudless.  But  sometimes  there  are  storms  with  thunder  and
lightning. The gardens are gay with flowers all  summer  months.  In  summer
people spend much time in the open air. Autumn  comes  in  September.  Early
autumn is still the harvest time, the time when the  fruits  and  vegetables
become ripe. It is also a very beautiful time in the year, when the  weather
is still warm and the leaves change their colour for green  to  yellow.  But
towards the end of October the weather gets  colder  and  colder.  There  is
much rain and fog. Leaves fall from trees and cover the  ground.  Birds  fly
away to the warm countries. Low and heavy clouds hang  in  the  sky.  Nature
slowly falls asleep for winter. In fact every season has its fine  days  and
is pleasant in its own way. And it is not difficult to see this beauty.
    There are many shops and supermarkets in our  city.  They  are  Zangar,
Ardager, Ramstor, Smat, Resey, Astana etc. My family has a shopping day.  It
is Saturday. We get up early in this day. Early to rise  and  early  to  bed
makes a man healthy, wealthy and  wise.  My  father  and  I  usually  go  to
Ramstor because it is near our house. In the morning we ask our mother  what
we need. We take bags and go to  the  shop.  First  of  all  we  go  to  the
butchers store. We buy sausage, meat, fish, and eggs there. In the  bakers
store we buy sweets, cakes, rolls and buns. In the  greengrocers  store  we
buy fresh  vegetables  and  fruits  such  as  carrots,  tomatoes,  potatoes,
onions, cucumbers, apples, lemons. An apple a day  keeps  the  doctor  away.
Last week we  had  our  mothers  birthday.  We  usually  prepare  for  this
holiday: we bought food and a present for her. We wanted to make her  happy.
She is the woman of taste, so we bought a perfume. She was  so  pleased  and
thanked for our shopping.
    When we have time for leisure, we usually need something that can amuse
and interest us. There are several ways to do  this.  People  use  radio  or
television. They switch on the radio set or TV set and  choose  the  program
they like best. Some people like music. They listen to various  concerts  of
modern and old music, new and old songs, and see dances. Everybody likes  to
see skating and  dancing  on  the  ice.  Radio  and  television  extend  our
knowledge about the world in which we live. Television helps us  to  visit
different lands, see new plants, animals, unusual birds, fish  and  insects,
mountains and valleys, lakes,  rivers  and  seas.  We  are  shown  different
countries, cities and towns and people who live there. This is what  we  can
do at home. If we want to go out, there are a lot of cinemas, theaters,  and
museums. In our city it is often difficult to decide  where  to  go  in  the
evening. Newspapers tell us what is on at cinemas and theaters. If  you  are
a theatergoer, you will choose a play you want to see. If  you  are  a  film
fan, you will go to the cinema.  The  cinema  has  really  become  the  most
popular kind of art. Young and old people  like  to  see  films  very  much.
There are many sections in Almaty. Those who like to dance  join  a  dancing
section. Those who are interested in music  join  a  musical  section  where
they are taught to play different musical instruments. People who  are  fond
of sports can join sport sections,  such  as  football,  skiing,  chess  and
                         The happiest day in my life
    The happiest day in my life is my birthday. I have my birthday  on  the
27th of December. Birthday is a very remarkable day for me. In  the  morning
my parents come to  my  place  and  say,  Happy  birthday!  They  give  me
presents. I enjoy to get them. I usually have my birthday party at home.  My
parents and I prepare for this day. We invite my friends  and  relatives  to
the party. I usually celebrate my birthday on Sunday. I get up early in  the
morning. My father and I go to the shop and to the market to  buy  something
we need for the party. My mother stays at home. She cleans the  flat,  makes
cakes, lays the table and waits for the guests. I like  this  day.  At  four
oclock my relatives and friends come to congratulate me  and  Im  glad  to
see them. They bring flowers, books  and  sweets  as  birthday  presents.  I
thank my friends. We have got a good holiday  dinner  on  this  day.  Mother
brings us a cake with candles on  it.  My  friends  sing  the  song:  Happy
birthday to you and I blow all the candles out. During  our  gay  party  we
sing songs, play guitar, dance, make jokes, play games and  speak  our  life
and future. After having tea we dance, watch TV and tell stories  and  funny
jokes. I enjoy my birthday party. My friends like this day too.