Historia mundial

------------------------------------------
       Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition
     Ayuda para el disco de inicio de emergencia
     -------------------------------------------

     (c) Copyright Microsoft Corporation, 2000


Este documento proporciona información complementaria o de última hora
como suplemento a la documentación de Windows Millennium Edition
(Windows ME).

Para cerrar este archivo de Ayuda, presione ALT-A-S.

--------
CONTENIDO
--------

RESUMEN
  Si Windows Millennium Edition únicamente se inicia en el modo
  a prueba de errores

TIPOS DE MÉTODOS Y MEDIOS DE INSTALACION DE WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION
  Windows Millennium Edition (versión comercial)
  Windows Millennium Edition (versión de actualización)
  Cómo busca las versiones anteriores de Windows el programa de instalación

  de la versión de actualización de Windows Millennium Edition
  Instalaciones limpias
  Versiones OEM de Windows Millennium Edition

SI WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION NO SE INICIA EN EL MODO A PRUEBA DE ERRORES
  Usar ScanDisk para comprobar el disco duro
  Usar el Comprobador del Registro de Windows

SI EL PROGRAMA DE INSTLACION SE DETIENE Y WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION NO SE
INICIA EN EL MODO A PRUEBA DE ERRORES
  Aviso acerca del software antivirus
  El programa de instalación deja de responder durante la detección de
  hardware

DESINSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION

INSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION CON WINDOWS NT O WINDOWS 2000

INSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION EN UN DISCO DURO NUEVO


=======
RESUMEN
=======

Si tiene problemas para instalar o iniciar Windows Millennium Edition
intente iniciar el equipo en el modo a prueba de errores antes de
intentar los pasos que se indican en este documento.

Si puede iniciar el sistema en el modo a prueba de errores, consulte
el Solucionador de problemas de modo a prueba de errores de Windows
Millennium Edition, en la p gina de advertencia de Modo seguro.
En el modo a prueba de errores, puede utilizar las herramientas de
resolución de problemas de Windows, como Restaurar sistema, que no
est n disponibles al iniciar el equipo desde este disco de inicio.

Para iniciar Windows en modo a prueba de errores:

1. Extraiga el disco de inicio y reinicie el equipo.

2. Cuando arranque de nuevo el equipo, presione la tecla CTRL
   y manténgala así hasta que aparezca el menú de inicio de
   Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition.

3. En el menú Inicio, elija Modo a prueba de errores (opción 3).

4. Siga los pasos que se indican en el Solucionador de problemas del
   modo a prueba de errores.

Si Windows Millennium Edition únicamente se inicia en el
modo a prueba de errores
---------------------------------------------------------
Si siguió los pasos indicados en el Solucionador de problemas del
modo a prueba de errores y, aún así, no puede iniciar Windows con
normalidad, siga estos pasos:

1. Cierre este archivo de Ayuda.

2. En el símbolo del sistema, escriba:
     scanreg /restore
   y presione ENTRAR.

3. Seleccione la fecha de copia de seguridad mas reciente y, a
   continuación, haga clic en Restaurar.


Si realiza estos pasos y sigue sin poder reiniciar el equipo
con normalidad:

1. Utilice el disco de inicio de Windows Millennium Edition para
   reiniciar el equipo y seleccione la opción 1 en el menú de
   inicio y, a continuación, haga presione ENTRAR.

2. Cierre el archivo de Ayuda.

3. Siga las instrucciones que aparecen en la pantalla para intentar
   instalar de nuevo Windows Millennium Edition.

**********
IMPORTANTE: Si instaló algún programa incluido con su disco duro,
asegúrese de leer la documentación que describe cómo iniciar el
equipo con un disco de inicio.
**********

======================================================================
TIPOS DE MÉTODOS Y MEDIOS DE INSTALACION DE WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION
======================================================================

La siguiente sección describe las diferentes versiones de Windows
Millennium Edition y sus requisitos de instalación.

Windows Millennium Edition (versión comercial)
----------------------------------------------
Esta versión no requiere una versión anterior de Microsoft Windows.

Windows Millennium Edition (versión de actualización)
-----------------------------------------------------
El programa de instalación requiere una copia anterior de
Microsoft Windows 95 ó Windows 98.

Cómo busca las versiones anteriores de Windows el programa de instalación
de la versión de actualización de Windows Millennium Edition
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
El programa de instalación busca en su equipo un producto que le permita
realizar la actualización. Si el programa de instalación no encuentra una
versión anterior de Windows en su equipo, le pedir  que inserte el medio de

la versión anterior para confirmar que puede realizar la actualización.
El medio puede ser un CD-ROM, un disco o una carpeta del disco duro en la
que se encuentren los archivos de instalación. Si utiliza discos, el
programa
de instalación podría pedirle varios de ellos.

Instalaciones limpias
----------------------
Puede utilizar la versión de actualización de Windows Millennium Edition
para instalar Windows Millennium Edition en un equipo que no tenga
instalada
una versión anterior de Windows, como sucede después de formatear el disco
duro. Esta opción se suele denominar "instalación limpia".

Como el proceso de comprobación de conformidad no puede encontrar una
versión
anterior, el programa de instalación le pedir  que inserte el medio de la
versión anterior para confirmar que puede realizar la actualización.
El medio puede ser un CD-ROM, un disco o una carpeta del disco duro en la
que
se encuentren los archivos de instalación. Si utiliza discos, el programa
de
instalación podría pedirle varios de ellos.

Para obtener mas información acerca de cómo instalar Windows Millennium
Edition en un equipo en el que no haya un sistema operativo anterior,
consulte
"Cómo instalar Windows Millennium Edition en un disco duro nuevo", al final
de este
documento.

Versiones OEM de Windows Millennium Edition
-------------------------------------------
La versión de Windows Millennium Edition para fabricantes de equipos
originales
(OEM) es una versión comercial especial a disposición de los fabricantes de

equipos. Los OEM pueden personalizar estas versiones de Windows
Millennium Edition para su hardware y software.

Los procedimientos y requisitos de instalación que se describen en este
documento pueden ser diferentes si dispone de una versión OEM de Windows
Millennium Edition. Para obtener mas información, lea la documentación
incluida con su equipo o póngase en contacto con el fabricante del mismo.


=========================================================================
SI WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION NO SE INICIA EN EL MODO A PRUEBA DE ERRORES
=========================================================================

Las siguientes condiciones pueden hacer que Windows Millennium Edition
no se inicie en el modo a prueba de errores:

- El equipo fue infectado por un virus. Utilice software antivirus
  actualizado para comprobar si hay un virus y limpiar el equipo si
  es necesario.

- La configuración del CMOS del equipo no es correcta. Compruebe si
  la configuración del CMOS del equipo es correcta. Tenga en cuenta
  que puede necesitar ponerse en contacto con el fabricante del
  equipo para comprobar la configuración.

- Existe un error en el hardware. Tenga en cuenta que puede necesitar
  ponerse en contacto con el fabricante del equipo para obtener mas
  información acerca del hardware.

- Existe un error en el disco duro del equipo.  Consulte "Usar ScanDisk
  para comprobar el disco duro".

- Existe un error en el Registro de Windows. Consulte "Usar
  el Comprobador del Registro de Windows".

Usar ScanDisk para comprobar el disco duro
------------------------------------------
Si cree que existen daĄos en algún archivo o algún problema de otro tipo
en su disco duro, ejecute ScanDisk para comprobarlo y reparar los errores.

Para comprobar en todos los discos duros si hay errores:

1. En el símbolo del sistema, escriba:

   scandisk /all

2. Presione ENTRAR.

Para realizar una comprobación de superficie completa en todos los
discos duros y conseguir la m xima protección ante la pérdida de datos:

1. En el símbolo del sistema, escriba:

   scandisk /all /surface

2. Presione ENTRAR.

Usar el Comprobador del Registro de Windows
-------------------------------------------
Si aún así no puede iniciar Windows Millennium Edition en el modo
a prueba de errores, ejecute l Comprobador del Registro de Windows
(Scanreg.exe), ya que podría haber un problema en el Registro de
Windows.

Para iniciar el Comprobador del Registro de Windows:

1. En el símbolo del sistema, escriba:

   scanreg /restore

2. Presione ENTRAR.

Es posible que Scanreg no esté disponible si Windows Millennium Edition
no se instaló correctamente en el equipo.


=========================================================================
SI EL PROGRAMA DE INSTLACION SE DETIENE Y WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION NO SE
INICIA EN EL MODO A PRUEBA DE ERRORES
=========================================================================

La siguiente sección explica lo que puede hacer para recuperar la
instalación de Windows después de un error. Para obtener mas información
acerca de otros problemas de instalación, consulte el archivo instalar.txt
que encontrar  en la carpeta Win9X del CD de Windows Millennium Edition.

Si encuentra alguno de estos mensajes de error al ejecutar el programa de
instalación:

- Disco de sistema no v lido

- Versión incorrecta de MS-DOS

- El archivo Command.com est  daĄado o no se encuentra

es probable que deba actualizar los archivos del sistema en el disco de
inicio de su equipo. Algunas opciones de configuración del CMOS o
software antivirus pueden impedir que el programa de instalación de
Windows instale en su equipo los archivos de sistema correctos.

Para sustituir los archivos de sistema:

1. Utilice el disco de inicio de Windows Millennium Edition para
   reiniciar el equipo y seleccione la opción 1 en el menú de
   inicio y, a continuación, haga presione ENTRAR.

2. Cierre el archivo de Ayuda.

3. Siga las instrucciones que aparecer n en la pantalla para ejecutar
   el programa de instalación.

4. Si se le pide, seleccione "Usar modo protegido".

Aviso acerca del software antivirus
-----------------------------------
Si hay algún programa antivirus en ejecución durante la instalación,
es posible que impidan que el programa de instalación actualice
correctamente los archivos del sistema.

**********
IMPORTANTE: Durante la instalación, es posible que aparezca un mensaje
de advertencia, que le informa de que cambió el registro de arranque
u otros archivos. Si aparece ese mensaje, DEBE ACEPTAR los cambios o
el programa de instalación no podr  actualizar los archivos importantes
que utiliza Windows Millennium Edition para iniciar el equipo.
**********

El programa de instalación deja de responder durante la detección de
hardware
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
Si el programa de instalación deja de responder durante la detección
del hardware del equipo, apague el equipo, espere unos segundos y
enciéndalo de nuevo. Es posible que necesite hacerlo varias veces.
Si se le pide, seleccione "Usar modo protegido" al iniciarse el programa
de instalación. El programa de instalación podría dejar de responder
durante varios de los módulos de detección y omitir  las  reas en las que
se produzcan errores para poder finalizar correctamente.

**********
IMPORTANTE: Utilice el interruptor del equipo para apagarlo por
completo. No utilice el botón de reinicio ni presione CTRL+ALT+SUPR
para reiniciar el equipo.
**********

Si, aún así, el programa de instalación no finaliza correctamente,
puede que sea necesario iniciar el equipo en el modo a prueba de
errores para que pueda ver los temas de Ayuda acerca de la
detección de hardware.


======================================
DESINSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION
=======================================

Si los pasos anteriores no funcionan, puede probar a desinstalar
Windows Millennium Edition y volver a la versión anterior de Windows.

Para desinstalar Windows Millennium Edition, debió elegir guardar
la información de desinstalación durante en el programa de instalación
de Windows Millennium Edition. La información de desinstalación se
guarda en los archivos Winundo.dat y Winundo.ini. Si elimina estos
archivos no podr  desinstalar Windows Millennium Edition.

**********
IMPORTANTE: no intente desinstalar Windows Millennium Edition si la
información de partición de su disco duro cambió desde la última
instalación correcta de Windows Millennium Edition.
Windows Millennium Edition crea una copia de seguridad de la
información de la partición del disco duro en el archivo
Suhdlog.dat al terminar una información correcta, y Uninstal.exe
restaura en el disco duro la información de partición que encuentra
en Suhdlog.dat. Si la información de partición del disco duro cambió
desde la última instalación correcta (en concreto, desde que se creó
Suhdlog.dat), es posible que pierda parte de los datos, o todos
ellos, al intentar desinstalar Windows Millennium Edition.
**********

Para desinstalar Windows Millennium Edition:

1. Utilice el disco de inicio de Windows Millennium Edition para
   reiniciar el equipo y seleccione la opción 1 en el menú de
   inicio y, a continuación, haga presione ENTRAR.

2. Cierre el archivo de Ayuda.

3. En el símbolo del sistema, escriba cada una de las siguientes
   líneas y presione ENTRAR después de cada una de ellas.

   smartdrv
   <unidad>:
   cd\<windows>\command
   uninstal.exe

   NOTA: <unidad> es la letra de la unidad en la que se encuentra
   la carpeta Windows (la predeterminada es C). <windows> es el nombre
   de la carpeta de Windows (el predeterminado es "Windows").

4. Escriba S cuando se le pregunte si desea continuar.
   Este proceso puede durar varios minutos.

NOTA: SmartDrive (Smartdrv.exe) no es necesario para ejecutar
Uninstal.exe, pero acelera mucho el proceso.


=================================================================
INSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION CON WINDOWS NT O WINDOWS 2000
=================================================================

No puede instalar Windows Millennium Edition sobre una versión de
Windows 2000 o Windows NT, pero ambas pueden coexistir en un mismo
sistema.
No obstante, por motivos de compatibilidad, se recomienda que
instale cada versión en un disco duro o partición diferente.
Si Windows NT ya est  instalado, el programa de instalación de
Windows Millennium Edition se agregar  al menú de inicio de Windows NT
para permitir alternar entre el inicio de Windows Millennium Edition
y de Windows NT.


===========================================================
INSTALAR WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION EN UN DISCO DURO NUEVO
===========================================================

Consulte el documento "Instalar Windows Millennium Edition en un disco
duro nuevo", que encontrar  en <CD-ROM>:\Win9x\Cleanhd.Txt.

También puede resultarle útil el archivo léame del programa de instalación.

Se encuentra en <CD-ROM>:\Win9X\instalar.txt.
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"
to
    woltman@magicnet.net.  It is important to do this so the exponents
    you've tested can be removed from the master list.


NOTES
-----

Let prime95.exe run at all times.  It runs at the lowest possible priority,
making use of all your idle CPU cycles.  It should not interfere with your
normal work.  Let the program run overnight and on weekends.  Never turn
your computer off.  Turn off your monitor to conserve energy.  NOTE:
Running your computer non-stop could increase your electric bill by $30
per year or more.

It can take many CPU days to test a large Mersenne number.  This program
can be safely interrupted by using the ESC key to write intermediate
results
to disk.  This program also saves intermediate results to disk every 30
minutes
in case there is a power failure.

To fully utilize a dual Pentium machine, you must run two copies of
prime95.exe.  Run one copy of prime95 as described above.  Run the second
copy of prime95.exe with the -A1 switch.  Place two shortcuts in the
startup folder (one with no switch and one with the -A1 switch).

Dual processor machines can also improve performance by setting
processor affinity in Windows NT.  To do this, do the following:
      1) Run Windows NT task manager
      2) Click on the processes tab
      3) Find your PRIME95 processes
      4) Right click on the processes and pick Processor Affinity.
      5) Set the flag on CPU 0 for one process and CPU 1 for the other

You can compare your computer's speed with other users by checking the
site http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/mersenne/benchmk.htm.  If you are
much slower than comparable machines, download Microsoft's WinTop
kernel toy to find programs (such as AOL) that are stealing all of
prime95's CPU cycles.  You can download the software free at
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/contents/powertoys/w95procwatcher


You can get a report of your PrimeNet server account status on the web
(http://entropia.com/primenet/status.shtml).  Type your UserID and
password into the web form, and click "Get Account Report".  You can
get your UserID and password from the Test/User Information
dialog box.

Information about running a local PrimeNet server is also available.
See http://entropia.com/primenet.  If you have any questions about the
PrimeNet server, you can send e-mail to primenet@entropia.com.

The first time you run this program it will perform an hour long
self-test to make sure the Lucas-Lehmer code is running properly
on your system.  There are 16 different self-tests, one for each
FFT size.  You can run all 16 self-tests with Options/Self Test
menu choice.  This is not required.

If you have overclocked your machine, I highly recommend running the
torture test for a couple of days.  The longer you run the torture test
the greater the chance that you will uncover an error caused by
overheating.

Depending on the exponent being tested, the program may decide that it
would be wise to invest some time checking for small factors before
running a Lucas-Lehmer test.  Furthermore, the program may start factoring
exponents before a previous Lucas-Lehmer test completes.  This is normal!
The program will resume the Lucas-Lehmer test when the factoring
completes.

For manual users, once you've started testing a range there is no advantage
in downloading a new database.  After your range completes, you can
download
a new database before you start your next range.

You can configure this program to have different properties at different
times of the day and/or to not run during certain times of the day.
Unfortunately, you must manual edit the prime.ini file.  Let's say you
want to install the program on a friend's machine and he runs a screen
saver at night.  He also runs a disk defragmenter at midnight on weekdays.
This prime.ini file will run the program at a higher priority than his
screen saver at night and on weekends.  It also sleeps for an hour when
his defragmenter starts running.  Finally, at night fewer save files are
generated to allow his disk to stay powered down longer.
      UserID=foo
      Time=1-5/8:30-17:30
      Priority=1
      DiskWriteTime=30
      Time=1-5/1:00-8:30,1-5/17:30-24:00,6-7/0:00-24:00
      Priority=5
      DiskWriteTime=240
The 1-5 refers to days of the week, with Monday=1 and Sunday=7.  The
time portion refers to the hours of the day based on a 24-hour clock.
You do not need to specify days of the week (e.g. Time=1-7/0:00-8:00
is the same as Time=0:00-8:00).  Unpredictable results will occur if
there are overlapping time intervals.  Also note that any options that
appear in the Time= sections should not appear earlier in the prime.ini
file and you can no longer edit these options from theuser interface.


SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER
-------------------------

Create a file in the same local folder as Prime95.exe, called
"primenet.ini".
Add these text lines, substituting the appropriate proxy server URL and
port:

[PrimeNet Proxy]
ProxyHost=http://proxy.megacorp.com:8080

If the proxy is secured by a userid/password, add the following two text
lines, substituting the appropriate values:

ProxyUser=whatever_the_userid_is
ProxyPass=whatever_the_password_is

After the first time PrimeNet is contacted through a secure proxy, the
proxy
password is encoded and a new parameter 'ProxyMask=1' set.  To change the
password, simply change the ProxyPass= value, and either delete the
ProxyMask
text line or set ProxyMask=0.


PROGRAM OUTPUT
--------------

On screen you will see:

Factored M400037 through 17517*2^32 (pass 3 of 16). Clocks: 24235224=0.121
sec.
      This means prime95 is in the third pass of a 16 pass process to
      find a small factor of 2^400037-1.
Iteration: 941400 / 1667747.  Clocks: 21889762 = 0.109 sec.
      This means prime95 just finished the 941400th iteration of a
      Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  The program must execute 1667747
      iterations to complete the primality test.  The average iteration
      took 21889762 "clock cycles" or 0.109 seconds.

The results file and screen will include lines that look like:

M2645701 has a factor: 13412891051374103
      This means to 2^2645701-1 is not prime.  It is divisible
      by 13412891051374103.
M2123027 no factor to 2^57, WS1: 14780E25
      This means 2^2123027-1 has no factors less than 2^57.  The Mersenne
      number may or may not be prime.  A Lucas-Lehmer test is needed
      to determine the primality of the Mersenne number.  WS1 is
      the program version number.  14780E25 is a checksum to guard
      against email transmission errors.
M1992031 is not prime. Res64: 6549369F4962ADE0. WT1:
B253EF24,1414032,00000000
      This means 2^1992031-1 is not prime - a Lucas-Lehmer test says so.
      The last 64 bits of the last number in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence
      is 6549369F4962ADE0.  At some future date, another person will verify
      this 64-bit result by rerunning the Lucas-Lehmer test.  WT1 is the
      program    version number.  B253EF24 is a checksum to guard against
email
      transmission errors.  1414032 can be ignored it is used as part
      of the double-checking process.  The final 00000000 value is a set
      of 4 counters.  These count the number of errors that occurred during
      the Lucas-Lehmer test.
M11213 is prime! WS1: 579A579A
      This means 2^11213-1 is a Mersenne prime!  WS1 is the program
      version number.  579A579A is a checksum to guard against email
      transmission errors.


RUNNING PRIME95 ON SEVERAL COMPUTERS
------------------------------------

The easiest way to do this is to first set up prime95 on one computer.
Next copy all the files to the second computer.  Delete the local.ini
file and worktodo.ini files.  These files contain information that
is specific to the first computer.  Start prime95 on the second
computer and optionally use Test/User Information to
give the second computer a unique computer ID.  Repeat this process
for all the computers you wish to run prime95 on.

If you do not follow the instruction above, be sure you use
Test/User Information to give each computer the same
userid and password.  Failure to do this will result in all
your work being "credited" to different user IDs.


TEST MENU
---------

The PrimeNet menu choice lets you configure the type of work you get
from the server.  The "Use PrimeNet..." option can be turned on to
switch from the manual method to the automatic method.
The "Request whatever..." box should be left checked.  However, if you
are running a slow computer and don't mind waiting several months for
a single Lucas-Lehmer test to complete OR you are running a faster
computer and would rather do factoring, then uncheck this box and
choose a different type of work to do.  The "Days of work to get" should
be changed based on how often you connect to the Internet.  As long as
you connect at least once in the given time period, prime95 will have
an uninterrupted stream of work.  However, the program will not checkout
more than 20 exponents no matter what "Days of work to get" is set at.

The Manual Operation menu choice allows you to select a range of
exponents to work on.  You may also use this menu choice to add
to your existing work (e.g. when you are running low on exponents
to test).

The User Information menu choice lets you change your name and email
address.  Your name will be used in credits and "top producers"
web pages.  Your email address will be used to send you warnings if
an exponent you have reserved is about to expire and to send you a
newsletter once every few months.  Select the no email checkbox to
stop the server from sending expiration warnings.  The userid you
use will appear in the status pages on the PrimeNet server.  You can
also set the ComputerID field if you have several computers and want
to keep track of which computers produced which results.

The Vacation/Holiday menu choice lets prime95 update the expected
completion
dates on the PrimeNet server.  This will prevent one of your exponents
from being reassigned while you're gone.  Also, if you are taking a
long vacation, prime95 will get extra exponents to test.  For example,
if you are leaving immediately for a 6 week vacation, connect to the
Internet and choose 42 days.  If you are leaving in two days for a 6
week vacation, then set choose 44 days.  Primenet will send the new
completion dates whenever you connect to the Internet over the next 2 days.

The Status menu choice will tell you what exponents you are working on.
It will also estimate how long that will take and
your chances of finding a new Mersenne prime.

The Continue menu choice lets you resume prime95 after you have stopped it.

The Stop menu choice lets you stop the program.  When you continue,
you will pick up right where you left off.  This is the same as hitting
the ESC key.


ADVANCED MENU
-------------

You should not need to use the Advanced menu.  This menu choice is
provided only for those who are curious to play with.  To avoid confusion
for novice users, all the choices in the Advanced menu have been grayed.
Please read this section if you want to know what the Advanced menu choices
do.  To turn on the Advanced menu, use the Advanced Password dialog box
and enter a value of 9876.  Also note that many of the menu choices are
grayed while testing is in progress.  Choose Test/Stop to activate
these menu choices.

The Test choice can be used to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on one Mersenne
number.  Enter the Mersenne number's exponent - this must be a prime
number between 7 and 5259999.

The Time choice can be used to see how long each iteration of a Lucas-
Lehmer
test will take on your computer and how long it will take to test a
given exponent.  For example, if you want to know how long a Lucas-Lehmer
test will take to test the exponent 876543, choose Advanced/Time and
enter 876543 for 100 iterations.  A Pentium will automatically time
and compute the results.  486 owners will need to time how long the
operation
takes by hand, divide that time by 100 and multiply by 876543 to compute
how
long a full Lucas-Lehmer test will take.

The ECM choice lets you factor small Mersenne exponents using the
Elliptic Curve Method of factoring.  Select a few exponents and bounds
to factor from the http://www.mersenne.org/ecm.htm web page.
Note:  You do not reserve exponents to work on, several people can
do ECM factoring on the same exponent.  The program uses a random
number generator to select elliptic curves to test.  You must email
results to me at woltman@magicnet.net - primenet does not support ECM
factoring.  You can also edit the worktodo.ini file directly.  For example:
      ECM=751,3000000,0,100,0,0,0
The first value is the exponent.  The second value is bound #1.  The
third value is bound #2 - leave it as zero.  The fourth value is the
number of curves to test.  The fifth value is the number of curves
completed.
The sixth value is the specific curve to test - it is only used in
debugging.  The seventh value is 0 for 2^N-1 factoring, 1 for 2^N+1
factoring.

The Clear Primes choice can be used to remove one or more exponents from
the
database.  You might do this for two reasons:
1) Let's say you're testing range 1234000 to 1234999.  If I send you some
   mail saying that a factor has been found for M1234567, then you use
   Clear Primes to remove 1234567 from your database so that you
   won't have to run a Lucas-Lehmer test on it.
2) You downloaded a new database after checking all the exponents
   between 1234000 and 1234300.  You can use Clear Primes
   to remove the exponents between 1234000 and 1234300.

Do not use the Factor menu choice.  If you're running Lucas-Lehmer tests
on a range or just factoring a range - use Test/Manual Operation.
The program will know the optimal amount of factoring to perform.   Having
said that, if you insist on using this menu choice, you can look for
factors
less than 2^62 of any Mersenne numbers with an exponent less than
10,000,000.
Let's say you're writing a factoring program for a UNIX machine and want to
check its results.  Use both this menu choice and your UNIX program to
search for small factors on a set of Mersenne numbers and compare the
results.

Round off checking.  This option will slow the program down by about 15%.
This option displays the smallest and largest "convolution error".  The
convolution error must be less than 0.49 or the results will be incorrect.
There really is no good reason to turn this option on.

The Priority menu is used to adjust the priority prime95 runs at.
You should not need to change this.  You might raise the priority
if you (or your coworker) just cannot live without your screen
saver (bad idea), or if you are running some ill-behaved program
that is using CPU cycles for no good reason.

The Manual Communication menu choice should only be used if the
automatic detection of an Internet connection is not working for you.
Using this option means you have to remember to communicate with the
server every week or two (by using this same menu choice).

The Quit GIMPS menu choice is used when you no longer want this computer
to work on the GIMPS project.  You may rejoin at a later date.
If you are a PrimeNet user your unfinshed work will be returned to the
server.  If you are a manual user, you need to send me email containing
your results.txt file and a note saying you are quitting.


OPTIONS MENU
------------

The CPU menu choice lets you tell the program what kind of CPU you
have.  The program will normally figure this information out for you.
This information is used to give accurate time estimates in the
Test/Status menu choice.  It is also used, to choose between integer
based factoring (Cyrix and 486) and floating point based factoring
(Pentium and Pentium Pro).  No matter what you choose, the program
uses the same code to run the Lucas-Lehmer primality test.  If you have
an AMD K5 or Cyrix M2 chip, choose Cyrix 6x86.

The Preferences menu choice lets you control how often a line is
written to the main window.  Also how often a line is written to
the results file.  It also lets you change how often
intermediate files (to guard against power failure an crashes)
are created.  You can control how often the program checks to
see if you are connected to the Internet.  The program polls
whenever it has new data to send to or work to get from the PrimeNet
server.  If you are low on disk space, you can select one intermediate
file instead of two.  However, if you crash in the middle of writing
the one intermediate file, you may have to restart an exponent from
scratch.  You can also tell the program to be quiet, rather than
beeping like crazy, if a new Mersenne prime is found.

The Self Test choice lets you run a sixteen-hour self test.  Passing the
self-test does not guarantee that you will not run into any hardware
problems later on, but it does give you some confidence that the program
is working properly.

The Torture Test choice will run a continuous self test.  This is great
for testing machines for hardware problems.

The Tray Icon choice will cause prime95 to have a small icon on the taskbar
when it is minimized.  You can activate the program by double-clicking on
the small icon.  If you place the cursor over the small icon, a tooltip
will
display the current status.

The No Icon choice is only enabled if the Advanced Menu is activated
with the password.  Using this menu choice means there will be no
prime95 icon on the taskbar once you minimize the program (making it very
hard to reactivate!)  If you turn this feature on and want to turn it
back off, edit prime.ini and change the line "HideIcon=1" to "HideIcon=0",
then reboot.

Checking the Windows 95 Service menu choice will install prime95
as a service.  The program will be run automatically whenever
you reboot your machine.  You will not need to place a shortcut to
prime95 in the startup menu.


COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
----------------------

These command line arguments can be used to schedule prime95.exe to
run only at certain times of the day or at a different priority.  Note
that raising the program's priority will not make it run any faster
on an idle machine.

-Tdd:hh:mm  This tells the program to terminate itself after
            the specified number of days, hours, and minutes.
            The days and hours are optional.  For example,
            use Windows 95 Plus Pack's scheduler to run the
            program on your co-worker's machine for 12 hours
            every evening with the -T12:00 argument.
-An         This is used to run two or more copies of prime95
            from the same directory.  Using this switch causes prime95
            to use a different set of filenames for the INI files,
            the results file, the log file, and the spool file.
            Just use a different value of n for each copy of
            prime95.exe you start.
-Wdirectory This tells prime95 to find all its files in a different
            directory than the executable.


POSSIBLE HARDWARE FAILURE
-------------------------

If the message, "Possible hardware failure, consult the readme file.",
appears in the results file, then prime95's error-checking has
detected a problem.  Prime95 will continue from the last save file.
If you do not get the message, "Disregard last error...", then the
problem is not reproducible - a definite sign of hardware problems.

How can this be when none of your other programs have problems?  The answer
is that prime95 stresses your machine more than any other program you
run.  The operating system usually shuts down the floating-point unit
when no programs are using it.  Prime95 continuously uses the FPU,
consuming
more electricity and generating more heat.  If the CPU is not properly
cooled,
errors can occur.  Prime95 also constantly accesses main memory - up to
60MB per second.  This constant activity will detect memory problems that
other programs do not.  This is why Cray Research has used a program
similar
to this one as part of its supercomputer diagnostics package for over a
decade.

Could it be a software problem?  If the error is ILLEGAL SUMOUT, then
there is a good chance that this is a software problem.  A device driver
or VxD may not be saving and restoring CPU state correctly.  The good news
is that prime95 recovers very well from ILLEGAL SUMOUT errors.
Try seeing if the problem occurs only when a specific device is active
or a specific program is running.

How can you track down the hardware problem?  Unfortunately, this is not
easy.  To see if your CPU is overheating, run prime95 for several hours.
Open the box.  Is the CPU too hot to touch?  If so, a heat sink or
CPU fan should solve the problem.  Memory problems are not as easy to
diagnose.  My only advice is to try swapping memory SIMMs with a coworker's
or friend's machine.  If the errors go away, then you can be confidant
that the original problems were memory related.

What can you do if you are unwilling or unable to find the hardware
problem?
If you are only getting an error once in a while, then your results are
probably OK.  The error-checking code is not infallible, so your results
will need to be double-checked.  If you are getting several errors during
each primality test, then I would recommend using your machine to factor
Mersenne numbers.


LUCAS-LEHMER DETAILS
--------------------

This program uses the Lucas-Lehmer primality test to see if 2**p-1 is
prime.
The Lucas sequence is defined as:
      L[1] = 4
      L[n+1] = (L[n]**2 - 2) mod (2**p - 1)
2**p-1 is prime if and only if L[p-1] = 0.

This program uses a discrete weighted transform (see Mathematics of
Computation, January 1994) to square numbers in the Lucas-Lehmer sequence.


DISCLAIMER
----------

THIS PROGRAM AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


THANKS
------

Happy hunting and thanks for joining the search,
George Woltman
woltman@magicnet.net
Welcome to the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search!

In case you ever forget, the URL is http://www.mersenne.org/prime.htm.
My email address is woltman@magicnet.net.
For networking questions, contact Scott Kurowski at primenet@entropia.com.


FILE LIST
---------

readme.txt  This file.
prime95.exe The program to factor and run Lucas-Lehmer tests on
            Mersenne numbers.
rpcnet.dll  Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using RPCs.
httpnet.dll Communicates with the Internet PrimeNet server using HTTP.
whatsnew.txt     A list of new features in prime95.exe.
prime.ini   A file containing your preferences.  The menu choices
            and dialog boxes are used to change your preferences.
local.ini   Like prime.ini, this file contains more preferences.
            The reason there are two files is discussed later.
worktodo.ini     A list of exponents the program will be factoring
            and/or Lucas-Lehmer testing.
results.txt Prime95.exe writes its results to this file.
prime.log   A text file listing all messages that have been sent
            to the PrimeNet server.
prime.spl   A binary file of messages that have not yet been sent to
            the PrimeNet server.
pnnnnnnn &  Intermediate files produced by prime95.exe to resume
qnnnnnnn    computation where it left off.
database    This optional binary file is downloaded separately.  You only
            need this file if you are not using the PrimeNet server.
            It contains all the Mersenne exponents that still need testing.


WHAT IS THIS PROGRAM?
---------------------

This program is used to find Mersenne Prime numbers.  See
http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/mersenne.shtml for a good
description of Mersenne primes.  Mersenne numbers can be proved
composite (not prime) by either finding a factor or by running
a Lucas-Lehmer primality test.


INSTRUCTIONS
------------

There are two ways to use this program.  The automatic way uses
a central server, which we call the PrimeNet server, to get work to do
and report your results.  Anyone with Internet access, including AOL,
CompuServe, and dial-up ISP users should use this method.  You do not
need a permanent connection to the Internet.

The second method is the manual method.  It requires a little more work
and monitoring.  I recommend this for computers with no Internet access
or with some kind of firewall problem that prevents the automatic method
from working.

If you are running this program at your place of employment, you should
first GET PERMISSION from your network administrator or boss.  This is
especially true if you are installing the software on several machines.
Some companies are reluctant to run any software they are not familiar
with.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE AUTOMATIC METHOD
-------------------------------------

1)  Download and unzip prime95.zip.  You've probably done this already
    since you are reading this file.
2)  Connect to the Internet.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.
    Optionally enter a user ID and password.  An easy-to-remember user ID
    will be helpful if you plan to visit the PrimeNet server's web page
    to view reports on your progress.  If you do not enter a user ID or if
    you pick a user ID that is already in use, then the server will assign
    a user ID.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, leave the "Use Primenet..." checkbox
    checked.  Do not turn this checkbox off even if you disconnect
    from the Internet.   Check the "Use a dial-up..." checkbox
    if you use a modem to connect to the Internet.  Note that prime95
    will not dial-up to connect to the Internet, rather it waits
    for a time when you are already connected to contact the server.
    Click OK.  Prime95 will now contact the PrimeNet server to get some
    work for your computer to do.
4)  If you cannot contact the PrimeNet server, then a firewall may be
    preventing the RPCs from getting to the server.  In this case, you
    may want to try the HTTP-based DLL.  Choose "Use HTTP-based DLL"
    from the Test/Primenet dialog.
4a) If you now get the error message "Unable to load HTTPNET.DLL", then
    you are probably missing WININET.DLL.  This DLL is shipped with
    Microsoft's Internet Explorer.  It is also installed by default in
    later versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT.  You can download and
    install WININET.DLL from Scott Kurowski's web site.  See
    http://entropia.com/ips/faq.html#wininet for details.
4b) If the http-based DLL will not connect to the server, then
    you will have to use the manual method described below.  There have
    been reports that the http-based DLL does not work in all
    MS IE 3.0 environments - we are working on making this DLL work in
    as many different environments as possible.
4c) If a proxy server is the cause of your connection troubles, see the
    later section on "SETTING UP A PROXY SERVER".
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Alternatively, you can install prime95.exe as a Windows 95 service
    using the Options menu.  Prime95 will now run every time you boot
    your computer.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #1
-----------------------------

1)  Use the Web (http://entropia.com/ips/manualtests.html) to create
    a userid for yourself and to get a set of exponents to work on.
    Copy these exponents to a file called worktodo.ini
2)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
2a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
2b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
2c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
3)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
4)  Once a month or when done with your exponents, use the web pages
    again to send the file "results.txt" to the PrimeNet server.
    It is important to do this so the exponents you are testing are
    not reassigned to someone else.


MANUAL METHOD INSTRUCTIONS #2
-----------------------------

1)  Download and unzip database.zip (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm).
2)  Use the Web (http://www.mersenne.org/range2.htm) to select a range of
    exponents to test.  Send me e-mail on the range you've chosen.
    This prevents others from testing the same range.
3)  Run prime95.exe.  You will see 3 dialog boxes:
3a) In the first dialog box, enter your name and email address.  Click OK.
3b) In the second dialog box, change the CPU type and speed if necessary.
    Fill in roughly how many hours a day you leave your computer running.
    Click OK.
3c) In the third dialog box, uncheck "Use PrimeNet to get work and report
    results", click OK.
4)  Choose Test/Manual Operation from the menus.  Enter the type of work
    and range of exponents you selected in step 2.
5)  Create a shortcut to prime95.exe and place it in the startup folder.
    Prime95 will now run every time you boot your computer.
6)  Once a month or when done with your range, send the file "results.txt"