реферат Mass Media, TV, TV Past and Future

Mass Media

      Mass media are one of the  most  characteristic  features  of  modern
civilizations. People are united into one global community with the help of
mass media/ People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast
using mass media.
      The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio, TV.
      The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper.  The  first  newspaper
was Roman called «Acta Diurna»  started in 59 B.C.
      Magazines appeared in 18 century.
      The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is  television.
It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people’s homes. So one can
see events in faraway places.
      Radio is widespread for its portability. It  can  be  easily  carried
around. People like to listen to the Radio in the park, on  the  beach,  at
the seaside, in the car, while driving a car, on the picnic. The main  kind
of radio entertainment is music, news, musical quiz.
      Newspapers can present all comment on the  news  in  much  detail  in
compares on to radio and TV.
      Magazines are designed to be kept for a long time. So it  have  cover
and binding. They are printed on better paper then newspapers.
      The youngest kind  of  mass  media  is  global  computer  net  called
Internet.  I think that Internet is kind  of  mass  media  of  the  future.
People can find on word wild web whole information about  all  things  from
sport to travel, from music to shopping. Internet is the most advanced  and
fast-growing kind of digital media. It gives people the freedom  of  speech
and self-expression unavailable before, at the same time allowing many  new
and unforeseen combinations of different media types. Internet is also  the
foundation of new technologies that will impact  the  society  in  numerous
ways, such as e-commerce and virtual multi-user communities.


            The name «Television» comes from Greek word  meaning  «far»  and
Latin word meaning «to see» so it means «to see far».
            There are commercial stations, they  sell  advertising  time  to
pay for their operating costs and to make profit/ The  public  stations  are
nonprofit organizations.
            Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly  entertainment  programs
to attract lager number of viewers.
            These programs include light dramas called  situation  comedies,
action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers  and
doctors,  show  dancers  and  singers,  movies,  quiz  shows,  soap  operas,
cartoons, talk shows. On talk  shows  a  host  interviews  politicians,  TV,
movie stars athletes. There are also  sport  programs,  brief  summaries  of
local, national and international news.
      Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials  appear
between and during most programs. They urge viewers to bye  different  kinds
of products – from dog food to hair spray, from cars to insurance polices.
            Public TV focuses mainly on education  and  culture.  Public  TV
 also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs  about  art
 and history. It attract less viewers then commercial TV.

                                  TV. Past and Future.

            In just half a century, television has covered  the  planet.  TV
affects our daily life is a way that no other media can. It  was  simply  an
idea of a machine able to broadcast both sound and vision.
            First TV-sets were in black and white.
            Since 1980 there have been four major  developments of  TV.  The
first is video, which has given viewers  the  power  to  control  what  they
watch and when they watch it.  These days, fifty percent  of  homes  have  a
video-cassette-recorder (VCR) and millions more are being sold every year.
             The  second  is  satellite  TV.  Thanks  to  direct   broadcast
satellites (DBS) dozens of new channels are now available  to  everyone  who
buys a receiving «dish». Many of these new channels specialize in  one  kind
of program – only news, sport, cartoons, music, movies.
            The third development is cable –  a  system  of  hi-tech  wires.
Which provides even more channels.
            So, TV has come a very long way in a very short time.